Piltdown Woman makes fire


Back in 1921, the year my father was born, when “Piltdown Man” still provided the “missing link”  between apes and humans, the women of the “Old Stone Age” knew their place. The other day I picked up a fine second-hand copy of Everyday Life in the Old Stone Age by Marjorie and C.H.B. Quennell. In the Quennell’s imagination, while their hirsute mates brought home the bacon or busied themselves painting the cave walls, women merely lurked or cowered, rather glumly, crawled over by demanding infants, in the background, or crouched over the fire. OK, some women made fire, roasted a chunk of meat or did a little scratching with a digging stick, but otherwise females played very much a supporting role. In the book’s illustrations, men did all the hunting and fishing, the flint knapping and the spear-making. Hmm.


“I’ve brought lunch darling”Moustier-people

“Oh do keep up dear!”


A working Aurignac man arrives home in time for his supper.


Life in a Madelaine hut seemed to be dispiriting, but the man was looking for better things.


More crouching women


Australian twins at home.

I haven’t read much of the text, but I liked that Piltdown Man (despite the fact that he never existed) was more “presentable” than “his Java ancestor” with a “respectable forehead” and also was right-handed, which made him “seem much more intimate.” The Quenelles were very proud of Eoanthropus, because he was “the first known Englishman.” Ho hum!

Piltdown-man“The first Englishman”

Garden archaeology 2015: a beginning

Today the sun was out and the barometer in the hall was pointing towards “fair” and I was at the unglamorous far end of the garden, digging in a bin-full of compost ready for this year’s courgettes and excavating a small trench in order to re-lay an electricity supply to the garage. Being an archaeologist I of course keep a close watch on every spade- and shovel-full of soil. After coming across a couple of fragments of clay pipe stem, I dug up a plastic infantry soldier, of the free-in-cornflakes-packets kind, which appears to have been chewed by a dog. But as the day ended, I found what at first appeared to be a coin, but in fact was a token:


It’s a canteen token, worth a halfpenny, presumably to be exchanged for a cup of tea (but it’s worth considering that in these parts, “tea” also applies to an evening meal, the midday meal being called “dinner”). It is difficult to date the token without finding who H.L.&S. Ltd were, though after the second world war tokens were often plastic. The cost of a cuppa seems modest, and one could certainly buy a cup of tea for a halfpenny in the late C19th, but the price may have been subsidised, so the token could date from pretty-well anywhere in the first half of the C20th. I was pointed, by a Twitter follower, to an example for sale on eBay, which has a hole drilled in the circle above the word “TEA”.

If I find out who H.L.& S Ltd were I’ll update this entry!

The joy of secondhand book archaeology

I buy a steady trickle of secondhand books, from bookshops, from charity shops and occasionally online. It’s  mostly an uneventful activity, as I’m usually buying books that relate somehow to my sphere of research. No chances of coming across rare first editions, even if I was remotely interested in that pursuit. However, people have a habit of leaving stuff between the leaves of books they then forget and discard. Again, my discoveries in this field of archaeology have been limited to pieces of blank paper, a supermarket receipt or two and a single bookmark.

But recently I found this:

Liebig beef concentrate card

It’s a card given away by the Liebig’s Extract of Meat Company, a manufacturer of a beef concentrate,  founded in London in 1865, using cheap South American meat and processing plants, and which  went on to create Oxo and Fray Bentos corned beef. I haven’t been able to date this one yet, but by the look of the image on the reverse it was probably issued in the early 20th century.

Liebig's manufacturing plant

Given away from the second half of the nineteenth century until the 1950s, the cards are of course collected by enthusiasts. Since collectors prefer complete albums, my single card isn’t going to raise much excitement. Yet of course it fascinated me. I had no idea of the existence of either company or cards, and love the contracts between the bucolic image on the front of the card, complete with small child (a recurring theme?) and the industrial scene on the reverse, with its all-male workforce.

As a vegan I’m unlikely ever to sample “Liebig’s Fleisch-Extract” (it’s still made apparently), or even Oxo, but the long-forgotten card linked me, as memories do, to the past, to life a century or so ago, to pots of black gooey stuff that was sold as being good for you, and to rural fantasy and industrial reality in the recent past.

Images as memories

Managed to scrape in past one deadline yesterday at about 30 minutes to midnight, and have to bash out another article today. But in the meantime, I have, for the first time as far as I know, starred on YouTube.


Lots of images of old doors and windows, which by coincidence also feature on the pages of the MIRIAD/Manchester School of Art Research Degrees Handbook 2013-2014.

I’ll hopefully have a piece in the next edition of GESTIN, the academic publication of Idanha-a-Nova Tourism and Management School. However that will require that I finish an online photo gallery. Phew!

Lost and Found: paddling into the past

As an archaeologist, I am by default a “finder” of “lost” objects. Most of my career has been spent excavating things discarded, mislaid, thrown away, hidden, hundreds, if not thousands of years ago. But recently I’ve become much more interested in and excited by objects “lost” by present-day people, objects that form assemblages found in charity shops. This is what I call my “99p archaeology” project.

But “loss” can mean many things: there is the kind of loss that results from a hole in a pocket, a loss that we may not even be aware of until we mourn the absence of the coins or whatever that have vanished.

There is the accidental loss of things that we know have gone astray but which we are powerless or unwilling to retrieve, such as objects that have fallen into the privy, or the phone that slipped through our fingers and into the sea.

We lose people, through death or migration, through conflict or just neglect. We lose status, face, jobs, time, sometimes memories, or unfortunately occasionally an organ or a limb.

Lost and Found is a collaborative project  involving a small group of MIRIAD researchers. On-going, it will eventually result in some sort of publication, or publications, and includes a changing exhibition located on the first floor of Manchester Metropolitan University’s Righton building.

The first objects I have added to the Lost and Found project first lost their function because the structure of which they were a vital moving part was abandoned. The objects were already hidden below the waterline and had simply vanished from the collective consciousness. No-one regretted their loss or even thought about them momentarily because they had become instantly valueless an instant after they were last used.

80 or so years later, the objects, which had been dredged, bent and decayed, from their muddy hiding place as part of a restoration project and cast aside as useless, are once again valued, if only by me, as examples of a long-redundant technology, as “ancient” artefacts, as a celebration of the achievements of long-dead canal builders and those who maintained the waterways, and as aesthetically interesting if not particularly attractive “found art.” As chunks of rotten wood and rusty iron they are of course perhaps without value to anyone else except perhaps as a conversation piece, or mysteries…

Now they rest beneath glass, instantly transformed by the closure of the display case lid from casually discarded and unappreciated junk to something else – artefacts, art (?), specimens, exhibits. Next to the, a printed label underlines their newly acquired status.

Of course the objects themselves haven’t changed, merely my/our interpretation of them and the messages they communicate about form and function and value. But perhaps I’m wrong. The objects have changed. They now mean something that they didn’t when rotting unnoticed in the grass. Or perhaps they have achieved a potential (to be exhibits etc) that they possessed but were unable to express until they established a relationship with me. That relationship depended on their being attractive (as in attracting my attention) and interesting (as opposed to the natural vegetation around them) enough to engage my agency and reward my making the effort to retrieve them, carry them home and then to share them. They might be said to have solicited my involvement.

Again, if I had been anyone else, someone without the various buttons that the objects pressed, I would have ignored or not even noticed them unless they tripped me up as I passed. But even if unnoticed, the paddles still possessed a whole range of potential messages. They almost certainly still do. The species of wood or composition of the iron, their design when compared with other paddles. Perhaps in another century or so, so far unthought of technologies will release much more meaning from these objects, at present locked away in their atoms and molecules. Just as the long-dead Welshmen who made them never for a moment thought that the prosaic objects they made would one day rest in a glass case in Manchester. What is exciting, in a fanciful material culture sort of way, is that they will never be the same, and neither, by association, will those anonymous canal men.

The Spode project begins…

TP_1_decoratedA few days ago I dug a test pit in a derelict area of the Spode factory in Stoke on Trent. Next week we’ll carry out a small excavation not far from the edge of the long-filled-in Newcastle Under Lyme Canal as p[art of the British Ceramics Biennial. My test pit was aimed at finding what lay beneath the surface of what had been a clay-loading area and latterly a car park.

The initial answer was hard-packed brick and stone rubble. Much pickaxing was required. Eventually I reached a horizon which featured some fragments of sagger. A reinforced concrete pile had been drilled through the deposits, an indication of a building apparently associated with handling clay. I need to find its construction and demolition dates. Scattered throughout the rubble was a small amount of transfer-printed pottery, much white unglazed waste and various fragments of kiln furniture.